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浅析:门窗产业迈向现代化征程的五大“绊脚石”

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 中介相争买方得利 购房者跳单节省中介费 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

深圳:部分城中村住房将纳入保障房体系

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

无论黑莓和三星联姻这种事是否发生,时代的发展已经凸显了移动技术下一波创新(和诉讼)浪潮的所在:在日益移动化的世界中掌握权限控制方法,阻止企业遭到黑客袭击。(财富中文网)
中国的网红经济发展到今天,经历了三个阶段:第一个阶段是文字时代,第二个阶段是图文时代,现在这一阶段是要归功于宽带的可用性的视频时代。
4. AT&T
4. HHhH
To SKN Company in Russia for exploding old Russian ammunition and creating diamonds. Now that`s recycling!
Imports grew 6.7 per cent year-on-year to $152.2bn after falling 1.4 per cent the previous month, according to China’s General Administration of Customs, defying a median forecast predicting contraction would worsen to 1.9 per cent.
Han said on his social media that he only designed the original version of the mascot, which is the ink painting, but didn't participate in the 3D model design. "Of course we believe the ugly stuff has nothing to do with you," Web users said, responding to the respected artist.

脸型。不要吃!要瘦!瘦出能切开黄油的颧骨。
The US has overtaken India as the leading user of anti-dumping and other trade defence cases, with China and its steel sector the biggest target, according to research.
The finest romance and the most acute anti-romance of the year, from some of the most rigorous intellects in American movies. The relationship between them is perhaps best summed up in this poem by William Blake, called “The Clod and the Pebble”:
[ri'tri:t]
Two terrifically entertaining, ensemble-driven, fact-based procedurals about appalling crimes and the institutions — the Roman Catholic Church and Wall Street banks — that allowed corruption to fester. In addition to mustering righteous anger, Mr. McCarthy and Mr. McKay, in very different ways, managed to infuse the routines of modern work (answering phones, typing on keyboards, scrutinizing spreadsheets) with suspense, emotion and moral gravity.

Footnotes

  • 新华社:从中央政治局会议看下半年中国经济六大信号
  • 单词episode 联想记忆:

人类在过去50年的平均寿命比人类存在的20万年中的平均寿命要长的多。目前,人类的平均寿命是70岁,1950年的平均寿命是47岁,两者存在很大的差异。
不久后,拉塞尔爱上了一名叫菲利普·莫里斯的狱友。莫里斯出狱后,拉塞尔通过给职员办公室打电话再次越狱,还假冒法官,大幅降低了自己的保释金。为了和莫里斯在一起,他又被捕和逃脱了两次,一度假装自己已经离世。他现在被判终身监禁,但表示看到自己的电影形象很激动。
The sales volume peaks at around 15 million per day, with nearly 700 tickets sold in every second.
有7所商学院在过去一两年落榜后重新上榜。
久而久之,这种民族融合给球队带了不同寻常的和谐。队中的年轻球员,尤其是切尔西的阿扎尔和卢卡库以及曼联的贾努扎伊,成了许多竞争对手羡慕的对象。
卢彦说,该工程也包括建造连结北京市中心与通州的基础设施建设、下水道与污水处理和建造能源设备。随着建设环球影城主题公园和国家大剧院的训练设施的落成,文化工程将会提供更多的就业机会。

中国建材行业一周大事记(6.8-6.14)

References

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